The Judiciary Power in Brazil
The Judiciary power is of extreme importance for the democracy of Brazil. It´s main functions are:
- Grant to society the individual, collective and social rights;
- Solve conflicts among the citizens, entities and State. Consequently the Supreme holds financial and administrative autonomy granted by the Brazilian Federal Constitution.
The Judiciary comprises both Federal and States courts, and the main power within the Judiciary is the Federal Supreme Court or STF. The courts are divided as Ordinary Courts or Specialized Courts.
#1.The Supreme Federal Court (STF)
The Supreme Federal Court is the highest authority of the Brazilian Judiciary. It is the final appeal court for Federal and State courts on Federal Constitution matters. It´s main functions are:
- To look after the constitution in order to make sure if it’s been complied as it should
- To give the final word on issues involving constitutional norms
The Supreme Federal Court has 11 Ministers appointed by the President which are named after approval given by the Senate.
#2.The Special Courts
Under the Supreme umbrella there are special courts. Such courts are the final courts of appeal for non-constitutional matters. These courts are the following:
- Superior Court of Justice (STJ)
- Superior Military Court (STM)
- Superior Electoral Court (TSE)
- Superior Labor Court (TST)
Below these courts are the Federal Regional Courts and the State Courts of appeal. These hear appeals against decisions of both the Lower Federal Courts and the Lower State Courts ( 1st instance courts) Federal Court hear cases to which the Federal Government or any of its Government corporations or entities are party.
#3. The State Court
hear cases that involve people or entities that are not related to the Federal Government, nor State nor Municipal entities or authorities.
#4. Other Courts
The First Instance Courts
which deal with Employment issues Trial Courts: Usually specialized in in first instance terms such as crime and family litigation
Courts of Justice:
Second instance courts, or Courts of Appeal.
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